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Ответ на обращение жителей Москвы по поводу минеральной ваты

 Экспертное мнение подготовлено по запросу общественного движения «Моссовет», куда обратились жители, проживающие в г.Москве по улицам Тухачевского и Живописная, обеспокоенные фактом использования в вентилируемых фасадах минеральной ваты. 

О последствиях использования минеральной ваты в строительстве для здоровья человека

 

Вентилируемые фасады, в которых применяется минеральная вата в качестве утеплителя, широко используются при строительстве и реконструкции объектов различного назначения, в том числе многоэтажных жилых домов. Помимо отделки фасадов минеральная также вата применяется при строительстве межкомнатных перегородок в жилых и офисных помещениях.

В понятие минеральная вата согласно ГОСТ 31913-2011 (EN ISO 9229:2007) «Материалы и изделия теплоизоляционные. Термины и определения», входит, в том числе и каменная вата, которая представляет собой плиты из стеклообразных нитей, полученных из легкоплавких пород вулканического происхождения и склеенных связующим компонентом, в основном фенол-формальдегидной смолой. Именно она наиболее широко применяется в строительстве.

Данный материал хрупкий и легко истирается в пыль, которая при плохой изоляции опадает в окружающую среду. Особенно интенсивно пыль выдувается из плит в упомянутых вентилируемых фасадах, где между облицовкой и слоем каменной ваты существует зазор в несколько сантиметров, по нему проходит воздушный поток, который и выносит большое количество пыли в окружающую среду.

Согласно расчетам, проведенным Центром Общественной Химико-Экологической Экспертизы, площадь утепления стандартного 9-этажного дома составляет 1498 кв.м. Соответственно, при использовании минеральной ваты плотностью 74 кг/куб.м для утепления такого дома необходим объем в размере 135 куб.м. При заданных параметрах из-за разрушения утеплителя под воздействием перепада температур за 25 лет эксплуатации дома потоки воздуха из вентиляционных каналов фасада могут вынести из-за обшивки до 1875 кг минеральной пыли, большая часть которой попадет в квартиры утепленного дома.

В среднестатистической 3-комнатсной квартире за год выпадет около 47 килограмм пыли. В случае проживания в доме с вентилируемым фасадом, более четверти этого объема составят минеральные частицы, попадающие в окна и вентиляцию, и являющиеся продуктом разрушения минеральной ваты фасада. Благодаря своим микроскопическим размерам (3х5 микрон) эти частицы не поддаются уборке и накапливаются в легких человека, не выходя с обратным током выдыхаемого воздуха.

Согласно медицинским исследованиям, накопление микрочастиц в легких человека вызывают следующие расстройства организма: головную боль, тошноту, раздражение глаз, аллергические реакции, крапивницу, дерматозы, обструктивный и хронический бронхит, бронхиальную астму, бактериальные и грибковые инфекции, воспалительные процессы и онкологические заболевания. Всемирной организацией здравоохранения микроскопические иголки минваты официально признаны канцерогенными. В ряде европейских стран применение минваты в жилищном строительстве серьезно ограничено.

По данным Первого МГМУ им. И.М. Сеченова, в последнее время в больницы начинает обращаться большое число людей, в домах которых был проведен капитальный ремонт, с вышеперечисленными симптомами. Одной из основных причин заболеваний дыхательной системы является «респирабельная» пыль, вызываемая минеральной ватой.

Кроме этого, при производстве минеральной ваты в качестве связующего компонента используются фенол-формальдегидные смолы, которые активно выделяют свободный фенол и формальдегид, способные провоцировать воспаления кожных покровов, слизистых оболочек и нервные расстройства. Давно известно, что фенол является канцерогеном, стимулирующим онкозаболевания. Попадание внутрь организма взрослого человека 1 г фенола (а в организм ребенка 0,05 г) может привести к летальному исходу. С учетом того, что фенол накапливается в организме, достижение этих параметров вполне возможно при проживании в комнате, имеющей перегородки с использованием плит из каменной ваты, в течение нескольких лет. По расчетам Центра, для  помещения размером 15 кв. м., в котором используются перегородки с использованием плит из миваты, необходимо около 90 кг минваты, из которой может испариться до 400 грамм свободного фенола.

 

Таким образом, использование минеральной ваты с применением фенола в качестве связующего может нанести существенный вред здоровью жителей домов и привести к ряду серьезных заболеваний, в том числе онкологических. Химические компоненты и токсичная пыль, выделяемая минеральной ватой и находящиеся в воздухе, впитываются и накапливаются в организме человека, приводя к снижению работоспособности, быстрой утомляемости, снижению концентрации, а при длительном воздействии – к злокачественным новообразованиям. Использование некачественных материалов недобросовестными строителями многократно увеличивает эти риски.

Использовать тепло и звукоизоляционные материалы из минеральной ваты в наружных конструкциях следует с большой осторожностью, а использование их во внутренних помещениях необходимо запретить с переходом на безопасные аналоги.

 


Руководитель Центра общественной
химико-экологической экспертизы,
кандидат химических наук Рейнов М.В.

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