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Статьи » дороги и реагенты » Жидкий реагент на основе хлорида кальция
Жидкий реагент на основе хлорида кальция

Экологи Владивостока обратились с просьбой дать свое мнение о применении на дорогах Владивостока ПГР, представляющего собой раствор хлорида кальция.

Сразу скажем: хлорид кальция отличное противогололедное средство, одно из лучших. Но, только если оно применяется в составе многокомпонентных комбинированных реагентов. Когда хлорид кальция применяется сам по себе, то проявляются два его недостатка. Во-первых, образующиеся на дорогах водные растворы хлорида кальция при определенной концентрации обладают большой вязкостью, что означает повышенную скользкость дорог. Скользкость дорог зимой это повышенный риск возникновения аварийных ситуаций. Второй недостаток – сравнительно высокая коррозионная активность, приближающаяся к активности технической соли, галита.

Если применяют не твердый реагент, а раствор хлорида кальция, то появляется третий и четвертый недостатки - значительно увеличивается расход реагента, растут расходы на транспортировку и хранение (гораздо дешевле перевозить тонну сухого реагента, чем три тонны его раствора). �? при этом значительно снижается температурный диапазон применения реагента. Если температура опускается ниже -10 градусов Цельсия, то жидкие ПГР уже не применяют, они становятся малоэффективны, а при температурах ниже -20 вообще не действуют. Владивосток относится к сравнительно холодным городам, средняя температура января примерно -11.5 градусов по Цельсию. Дней, когда температуры держится ниже -10, очень много, а ночей еще больше. В этой ситуации куда более целесообразно применение твердых ПГР.

Проблема вязкости во многом решена применением комбинированных реагентов. Так, например, если вязкость хлорида кальция по данным РосдорН�?�? 2,84 сантипуаз, то вязкость многокомпонентных комбинированных реагентов, в состав которых входит хлориды кальция, натрия, калия, могут входить формиаты и ацетаты калия, кальция и натрия, имеют значения в районе 1.6-1.7 сантипуаз. То есть, значительно ниже, чем у хлорида кальция, используемого в качестве ПГР отдельно. Владивосток это город холмов, местность неровная, поэтому очень важно обрабатывать дороги такими средствами, которые минимизируют скользкость.

С коррозионной активностью можно бороться, добавляя в многокомпонентные смеси ингибиторы коррозии. Еще один, очень эффективный способ – добавлять формиаты, которые одновременно являются противогололедными реагентами, довольно успешно плавящими лед (хотя и не так хорошо, как хлорид кальция). �? при этом обладают очень низкой коррозионной активностью. Смеси, в которых входит формиат натрия или калия, значительно менее агрессивны к металлам, чем отдельно применяемые в качестве ПГР хлориды натрия, кальция, магния.

Также следует сказать, что у комбинированных реагентов, согласно исследованиям РосдорН�?�?, гораздо бОльшая плавящая способность, чем у жидких ПГР. Например, у жидкого хлористого кальция она составляет 4.3 г/г. А у многокомпонентного твердого при тех же условиях 10 г/г.

Таким образом, суммируя вышесказанное, для дорог Владивостока мы рекомендуем использовать в качестве противогололедных реагентов твердые многокомпонентные смеси.

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